The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the emergence of China as a primordial global power are two of the most impactful political events of our generation. They are also profoundly intertwined at various levels: China not only sees ICTs as essential to its continued development, it is also enmeshed in rapidly evolving international discussions concerning internet governance and cyber security. The West and China however strongly diverge within these discussions. Where the former advocates an open and free system, China prefers a structure where national sovereignty prevails, and the state plays the central role. Therefore, China presents a complex challenge: while certain Chinese principles and processes are diametrically opposed to the fundamental values that form Dutch foreign policy, it is impossible to combat a number of global cyber risks without Chinese cooperation. The bilateral relationship with China must also be viewed not only in itself, but also in the context of rapidly changing geopolitical relations and technological capacities.